Sustentabilidade: O futuro que queremos: Rio+20: Conheça o “rascunho zero” (zero draft) da Conferência

Fonte: ONU | Data: 20 de january, 2012

No contexto do processo da Rio+20, o “rascunho zero” (zero draft) da Conferência é fruto das negociações entre Estados-Membros, agências internacionais, organizações não governamentais e grupos políticos. O documento combina as sugestões, ideias e comentários de 643 propostas enviadas por estes países e instituições e será o principal texto a ser discutido pelos líderes mundiais na conferência para garantir um compromisso político renovado para o desenvolvimento sustentável. Esta é a primeira versão de uma série, dentro do cronograma da Conferência da ONU sobre Desenvolvimento Sustentável, a Rio+20.




January 10, 2012








I. Preamble/Stage setting

Vision…………………………………………………………………. 1-5

II. Renewing Political Commitment

A. Reaffirming Rio principles and past action plans………………… 6-9

B. Assessing the progress to date and the remaining gaps in the

implementation of the outcomes of the major summits on

sustainable development and addressing new and emerging

challenges (Integration, Implementation, Coherence)……………… 10-16

C. Engaging major groups…………………………………………….. 17-21

D. Framework for action………………………………………………. 22-24

III. Green Economy in the context of sustainable development and

poverty eradication

A. Framing the context of the green economy, challenges and

opportunities……………………………………………………. 25-31

B. Toolkits and experience sharing………………………………… 32-36

C. Framework for action…………………………………………… 37-43

IV. Institutional Framework for Sustainable Development

A. Strengthening/reforming/integrating the three pillars…………… 44

B. GA, ECOSOC, CSD, SDC proposal……………………………. 45-49

C. UNEP, specialized agency on environment proposal, IFIs,

United Nations operational activities at country level………… 50-58


Submitted by the co-Chairs on behalf of the Bureau in accordance with the decision in Prepcom 2 to present the zero-draft

of the outcome document for consideration by Member States and other stakeholders no later than early January 2012. 2

D. Regional, National, Local……………………………………… 59-62

V. Framework for action and follow-up

A.  Priority/key/thematic/cross-sectoral issues and areas…………… 63-104

B.  Accelerating and measuring progress (SDGs, GDP and others)... 105-111

C. Means of Implementation (finance, access to and transfer of

technology, capacity building)………………………………….. 112-128


I. Preamble/Stage Setting

1. We, the heads of State and Government, having met at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from

20-22 June 2012, resolve to work together for a prosperous, secure and sustainable future for

our people and our planet.

2. We reaffirm our determination to free humanity from hunger and want through the

eradication of all forms of poverty and strive for societies which are just, equitable and

inclusive, for economic stability and growth that benefits all.

3. We are committed to making every effort to accelerate progress in achieving the

internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals by

2015, thus improving the lives of the poorest people.

4. We are also committed to enhancing cooperation and addressing the ongoing and

emerging issues in ways which will enhance opportunities for all, be centred on human

development while preserving and protecting the life support system of our common home,

our shared planet.

5. We urge bold and decisive action on the objective and themes for the conference. We

renew our commitment to sustainable development and express our determination to pursue

the green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication. We

further affirm our resolve to strengthen the institutional framework for sustainable

development. Taken together our actions should fill the implementation gaps and achieve

greater integration among the three pillars of sustainable development – the economic, the

social and the environmental.

II.  Renewing Political Commitment

[A. Reaffirming Rio principles and past action plans]

6.  We reaffirm that we continue to be guided by the purposes and principles of the

Charter of the United Nations and with full respect for international law and its principles.

7.  We reaffirm our commitment to advance progress in implementation of the Rio

Declaration on Environment and Development, Agenda 21, the Programme for the Further

Implementation of Agenda 21, the Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development

and the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, the

Barbados Programme of Action and the Mauritius Strategy for Implementation. The Rio

Principles shall continue to guide the international community and serve as the basis for

cooperation, coherence and implementation of agreed commitments.

8.  We also reaffirm our commitment to the Monterrey Consensus of the International

Conference on Financing for Development, the Doha Declaration on Financing for

Development: the Political Declaration on Africa’s development needs, and the Istanbul

Programme of Action for Least Developed Countries.

9. We recognize the need to reinforce sustainable development globally through our

collective and national efforts, in accordance with the principle of common but differentiated

responsibilities and the principle of the sovereign right of states over their natural resources.  4

[B. Assessing the progress to date and the remaining gaps in the implementation of the

outcomes of the major summits on sustainable development and addressing new and

emerging challenges (Integration, Implementation, Coherence)]

10. We recognize that the twenty years since the Earth Summit in 1992 have seen

progress and change. There are deeply inspiring examples of progress, including in poverty

eradication, in pockets of economic dynamism and in connectivity spurred by new

information technologies which have empowered people.

11.  We acknowledge, however, that there have also been setbacks because of multiple

interrelated crises – financial, economic and volatile energy and food prices. Food insecurity,

climate change and biodiversity loss have adversely affected development gains. New

scientific evidence points to the gravity of the threats we face. New and emerging challenges

include the further intensification of earlier problems calling for more urgent responses. We

are deeply concerned that around 1.4 billion people still live in extreme poverty and one sixth

of the world’s population is undernourished, pandemics and epidemics are omnipresent

threats. Unsustainable development has increased the stress on the earth's limited natural

resources and on the carrying capacity of ecosystems. Our planet supports seven billion

people expected to reach nine billion by 2050.

12. We note that national commitment to sustainable development has deepened. Many

Governments now incorporate environmental and social issues into their economic policies,

and have strengthened their commitment to sustainable development and the implementation

of Agenda 21 and related agreements through national policies and plans, national legislation

and institutions, and the ratification and implementation of international environmental


13. We nevertheless observe that, despite efforts by Governments and non-State actors in

all countries, sustainable development remains a distant goal and there remain major barriers

and systemic gaps in the implementation of internationally agreed commitments.

14. We resolve to redouble our efforts to eradicate poverty and hunger and to ensure that

human activities respect the earth’s ecosystems and life-support systems. We need to

mainstream sustainable development in all aspects of the way we live. We acknowledge the

particular responsibility to nurture sustainable development and sustainable consumption and

production patterns.

15. We recognize the special challenges facing least developed countries, landlocked

developing countries, Small Island developing States, middle-income countries and African


16. We acknowledge the diversity of the world and recognize that all cultures and

civilizations contribute to the enrichment of humankind and the protection of the Earth’s life

support system. We emphasize the importance of culture for sustainable development. We

call for a holistic approach to sustainable development which will guide humanity to live in

harmony with nature.

[C. Engaging major groups]

17. We underscore that a fundamental prerequisite for the achievement of sustainable

development is broad public participation in decision-making. Sustainable development

requires major groups – women, children and youth, indigenous peoples, non-governmental 5

organisations, local authorities, workers and trade unions, business and industry, the scientific

and technological community, and farmers – to play a meaningful role at all levels. It is

important to enable all members of civil society to be actively engaged in sustainable

development by incorporating their specific knowledge and practical know-how into national

and local policy making. In this regard, we also acknowledge the role of national parliaments

in furthering sustainable development.

18. We recognize that improved participation of civil society depends upon strengthening

the right to access information and building civil society capacity to exercise this right.

Technology is making it easier for Governments to share information with the public and for

the public to hold decision makers accountable. In this regard, it is essential to work towards

universal access to information and communications technologies.

19. We acknowledge the important role of the private sector in moving towards

sustainable development. We strongly encourage business and industry to show leadership in

advancing a green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty


20. We also acknowledge the essential role of local governments and the need to fully

integrate them into all levels of decision making on sustainable development.

21. We recognize the importance of the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous

Peoples in the global, regional and national implementation of sustainable development

strategies. We also recognize the need to reflect the views of children and youth as the issues

we are addressing will have a deep impact on the youth of today and the generations that


[D. Framework for action]

22. We commit to improving governance and capacity at all levels – global, regional,

national and local – to promote integrated decision making, to fill the implementation gap

and promote coherence across institutions.

23. We commit ourselves to reinvigorating the global partnership for sustainable

development. We recognize that States must work together cooperatively and join with all

stakeholders to address the common sustainable development challenges we face.

24. We call for a global policy framework requiring all listed and large private companies

to consider sustainability issues and to integrate sustainability information within the

reporting cycle.

III. Green Economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication

A. Framing the context of the green economy, challenges and opportunities

25. We are convinced that a green economy in the context of sustainable development

and poverty eradication should contribute to meeting key goals – in particular the priorities of

poverty eradication, food security, sound water management, universal access to modern

energy services, sustainable cities, management of oceans and improving resilience and

disaster preparedness, as well as public health, human resource development and sustained,

inclusive and equitable growth that generates employment, including for youth. It should be 6

based on the Rio principles, in particular the principle of common but differentiated

responsibilities, and should be people-centred and inclusive, providing opportunities and

benefits for all citizens and all countries.

26. We view the green economy as a means to achieve sustainable development, which

must remain our overarching goal. We acknowledge that a green economy in the context of

sustainable development and poverty eradication should protect and enhance the natural

resource base, increase resource efficiency, promote sustainable consumption and production

patterns, and move the world toward low-carbon development.

27. We underscore that green economy is not intended as a rigid set of rules but rather as

a decision-making framework to foster integrated consideration of the three pillars of

sustainable development in all relevant domains of public and private decision-making.

28. We recognize that each country, respecting specific realities of economic, social and

environmental development as well as particular conditions and priorities, will make the

appropriate choices.

29. We are convinced that green economy policies and measures can offer win-win

opportunities to improve the integration of economic development with environmental

sustainability to all countries, regardless of the structure of their economy and their level of


30. We acknowledge, however, that developing countries are facing great challenges in

eradicating poverty and sustaining growth, and a transition to a green economy will require

structural adjustments which may involve additional costs to their economies. In this regard,

the support of the international community is necessary.

31. We note that the transformation to a green economy should be an opportunity to all

countries and a threat to none. We therefore resolve that international efforts to help countries

build a green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication

must not:

a) create new trade barriers;

b) impose new conditionalities on aid and finance;

c) widen technology gaps or exacerbate technological dependence of developing

countries on developed countries;

d) restrict the policy space for countries to pursue their own paths to sustainable


B. Toolkits and experience sharing

32. We acknowledge that countries are still in the early stages of building green

economies and can learn from one another. We note the positive experiences in developing a

green economy in some countries, including developing countries. We recognize that a mix

of policies and measures tailored to each country’s needs and preferences will be needed.

Policy options include, inter alia, regulatory, economic and fiscal instruments, investment in

green infrastructure, financial incentives, subsidy reform, sustainable public procurement,

information disclosure, and voluntary partnerships. 7

33. We support the creation of an international knowledge-sharing platform to facilitate

countries’ green economy policy design and implementation, including:

a) a menu of policy options;

b) a toolbox of good practices in applying green economy policies at regional,

national and local levels;

c) a set of indicators to measure progress;

d) a directory of technical services, technology and financing that could assist

developing countries.

34. We request the UN Secretary-General, in consultation with international

organizations, relevant entities of the UN system and others, to establish such a platform.

35. We urge member States to make national presentations on their experiences in the

appropriate institutional framework as described in Section IV below.

36. We also urge all major groups, particularly business and industry, to share their

experiences in this regard.

C. Framework for action

37. We recognize the value of having a set of differentiated strategies, tailored to the

needs of different countries and different sectors.

38. We encourage all States to develop their own green economy strategies through a

transparent process of multi-stakeholder consultation.

39. We encourage the United Nations, in cooperation with other relevant international

organizations, to support developing countries at their request in developing green economy


40. We strongly encourage business and industry – organized by industrial sectors,

cooperating across countries and in consultation with governments, workers and trade unions

and other stakeholders – to develop green economy roadmaps for their respective sectors,

with concrete goals and benchmarks of progress, including for net creation of jobs.

41. We acknowledge and encourage voluntary national commitments and actions by State

actors as well as stakeholders to achieve a green economy in the context of sustainable

development and poverty eradication, including through the shaping of innovative


42. We realize that to make significant progress towards building green economies will

require new investments, new skills formation, technology development, transfer and access,

and capacity building in all countries. We acknowledge the particular need to provide support

to developing countries in this regard and agree:

a) To provide new, additional and scaled up sources of financing to developing


b) To launch an international process to promote the role of innovative instruments

of finance for building green economies; 8

c) To gradually eliminate subsidies that have considerable negative effects on the

environment and are incompatible with sustainable development, complemented

with measures to protect poor and vulnerable groups;

d) To facilitate international collaborative research on green technologies involving

developing countries, ensuring the technologies so developed remain in the public

domain and are accessible to developing countries at affordable prices;

e) To encourage creation of Centres of Excellence as nodal points for green

technology R&D;

f) To support developing countries’ scientists and engineers and scientific and

engineering institutions to foster their efforts to develop green local technologies

and use traditional knowledge;

g) To establish a capacity development scheme to provide country-specific advice

and, where appropriate, region and sector-specific advice to all interested

countries and to assist them in accessing available funds.

43. We recognize the importance of measuring global progress. In this regard, we will be

guided by a roadmap that contains the following indicative goals and timeline:

a) 2012~2015: establishment of indicators and measures to evaluate implementation;

establishment of mechanisms for the transfer of technology, sharing of know-how,

and enhancement of capacities;

b) 2015~2030: implementation and periodic assessment of progress;

c) 2030: comprehensive assessment of progress.

We request the Secretary-General, in close cooperation with the UN system, to provide a

report for the General Assembly at its 67th session, detailing further steps in this regard.

IV.  Institutional framework for sustainable development

A.  Strengthening/reforming/integrating the three pillars

44. We recognize that strong governance at local, national, regional and global levels is

critical for advancing sustainable development. The strengthening and reform of the

institutional framework should, among other things:

a) Integrate the three pillars of sustainable development and promote the

implementation of Agenda 21 and related outcomes, consistent with the principles

of universality, democracy, transparency, cost-effectiveness and accountability,

keeping in mind the Rio Principles, in particular common but differentiated


b) Provide cohesive, government-driven policy guidance on sustainable development

and identify specific actions in order to fulfil the sustainable development agenda

through the promotion of integrated decision making at all levels.

c) Monitor progress in the implementation of Agenda 21 and relevant outcomes and

agreements, at local, national, regional and global levels.

d) Reinforce coherence among the agencies, funds and programmes of the United

Nations system, including the International Financial and Trade Institutions. 9

B.  GA, ECOSOC, CSD, SDC proposal

[General Assembly]

45. We reaffirm the central role of the General Assembly as the highest policy-making

body, and call for it to further integrate sustainable development as a key element of the

overarching framework for United Nations activities.

[Economic and Social Council]

46. We reaffirm that the Economic and Social Council is a central mechanism for the

coordination of the United Nations system and its specialized agencies and supervision of its

subsidiary bodies, in particular its functional commissions.

47. We also reaffirm that ECOSOC is a central forum for intergovernmental deliberations

on economic and social issues, and provides guidance and coordination to the UN system’s

operational activities for development in the field.

48. We agree to promote the role of ECOSOC in the integration of the three pillars of

sustainable development including by making better use of the coordination segment of

ECOSOC for monitoring implementation of agreements on sustainable development and,

similarly, making use of the ECOSOC operational activities and humanitarian segments to

promote mainstreaming of sustainable development into programmes of UN agencies and


[Commission on Sustainable Development]

49. We reaffirm the role of the Commission on Sustainable Development as the high level

commission on sustainable development in the United Nations system. We agree to consider

options for improving the working methods, the agenda and programme of work of the

Commission to better facilitate, promote, and coordinate sustainable development

implementation, including measures to ensure more focused, balanced and responsive

engagement with a more limited set of issues, and enhanced implementation of its decisions.

We also agree to consider means to enhance the review function of the Commission,

including through a voluntary review process.


[Sustainable Development Council]

49 alt.  We resolve to transform the CSD into a Sustainable Development Council that

will serve as the authoritative, high-level body for consideration of matters relating to the

integration of the three dimensions of sustainable development

49 alt. bis The work of the Council should be based on fundamental documents on

sustainable development such as Agenda 21, the Rio principles and related outcomes. The

Council should, inter alia, fully carry out the functions and mandates of the Commission for

Sustainable Development. It would be guided by the need to promote integration of the three

pillars of sustainable development, promote effective implementation at all levels and

promote effective institutional coherence. It should help in enhancing the involvement of all

stakeholders, particularly major groups, in the follow-up of Rio+20.

49 alt  ter. We request the President of the General Assembly to conduct open,

transparent and inclusive negotiations, with the aim of establishing the mandate, modalities,

functions, size, composition, membership, working methods and procedures of the Council

and report on the outcome before the end of the 67th session of the General Assembly.  10

C.  UNEP, specialized agency on environment proposal, IFIs, United Nations

operational activities at country level

50. We reaffirm the need to strengthen international environmental governance within the

context of the institutional framework for sustainable development, in order to promote a

balanced integration of the economic, social and environmental pillars of sustainable

development, and to this end:

51. We agree to strengthen the capacity of UNEP to fulfil its mandate by establishing

universal membership in its Governing Council and call for significantly increasing its

financial base to deepen policy coordination and enhance means of implementation.


51 alt. We resolve to establish a UN specialized agency for the environment with universal

membership of its Governing Council, based on UNEP, with a revised and strengthened

mandate, supported by stable, adequate and predictable financial contributions and operating

on an equal footing with other UN specialized agencies. This agency, based in Nairobi,

would cooperate closely with other specialized agencies.

52. We stress the need for a regular review of the state of the planet and the Earth’s

carrying capacity and request the Secretary-General to coordinate the preparation of such a

review in consultation with relevant international organizations and the UN system.

53. We call for the scientific basis for decision making to be strengthened across the UN

system and recognise that the interface between science and policy-making should be


54. We recognize that sustainable development must be given due consideration by the

International Financial Institutions, especially the World Bank and the International

Monetary Fund, the regional development banks, UNCTAD and the World Trade

Organization in regulating global trade. In that regard, we request the international financial

institutions to review their programmatic strategies to ensure the provision of better support

to developing countries for the implementation of sustainable development.

55. We recognize that coordination and cooperation among the MEAs are needed in order

to, inter alia, address policy fragmentation and avoid overlap and duplication. We welcome

the work already undertaken to enhance synergies among the three conventions in the

chemicals and waste cluster. We call for further measures to enhance coordination and

cooperation among MEAs in other clusters.

56. We emphasise the need to strengthen operational activities for sustainable

development, especially the delivery of the UN system in the field.

57. We agree to further consider the establishment of an Ombudsperson, or High

Commissioner for Future Generations, to promote sustainable development.

58. We agree to take steps to give further effect to Rio Principle 10 at the global, regional

and national level, as appropriate.

D. Regional, national, local

59. We reaffirm that overarching sustainable development strategies incorporated in

national development plans are key instruments for the implementation of sustainable

development commitments at regional, national and sub-national levels.  11

60. We call for the strengthening of existing regional and sub-regional mechanisms,

including the regional commissions, in promoting sustainable development through capacity

building, exchange of information and experiences and providing expertise.

61. We underline the need for more coherent and integrated planning and decisionmaking at the national level. We therefore call on countries to establish and strengthen, as

appropriate, national sustainable development councils to enable them to coordinate,

consolidate and ensure the mainstreaming of cross-cutting issues in the highest decisionmaking bodies, with the integration and full participation of all stakeholders.

62. We recognise the need to integrate sustainable urban development policy as a key

component of a national sustainable development policy and, in this regard, to empower local

authorities to work more closely with national governments. We recognize that partnerships

among cities have emerged as a leading force for action on sustainable development. We

commit to support international cooperation among local authorities, including through

assistance from international organizations.

V. Framework for action and follow-up

A.  Priority/key/thematic/cross-sectoral issues and areas

63. We recognize that progress in implementation requires attention to a number of

sectoral and cross-sectoral priority areas as well as to the linkage among different sectors. We

also recognize that assessing progress in these areas can benefit from defining aspirational

goals, targets and indicators, as appropriate. We therefore commit to the following actions:

[Food security]

64. We reaffirm the right to food and call upon all States to prioritize sustainable

intensification of food production through increased investment in local food production,

improved access to local and global agri-food markets, and reduced waste throughout the

supply chain, with special attention to women, smallholders, youth, and indigenous farmers.

We are committed to ensuring proper nutrition for our people.

65. We call for more transparent and open trading systems and, where appropriate,

practices that contribute to the stability of food prices and domestic markets; ensure access to

land, water and other resources; and support social protection programmes.

66. We further support initiatives at all levels that improve access to information, enhance

interactions among farmers and experts through education and extension services, and

increase the use of appropriate technologies for sustainable agriculture.


67. We underline the importance of the right to safe and clean drinking water and

sanitation as a human right that is essential for the full enjoyment of life and all human rights.

Furthermore, we highlight the critical importance of water resources for sustainable

development, including poverty and hunger eradication, public health, food security,

hydropower, agriculture and rural development.

68. We recognize the necessity of setting goals for wastewater management, including

reducing water pollution from households, industrial and agricultural sources and promoting 12

water efficiency, wastewater treatment and the use of wastewater as a resource, particularly

in expanding urban areas.

69. We renew our commitment made in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (JPOI)

regarding the development and implementation of integrated water resources management

and water efficiency plans. We reaffirm our commitment to the 2005-2015 International

Decade for Action “Water for Life”. We encourage cooperation initiatives for water

resources management in particular through capacity development, exchange of experiences,

best practices and lessons learned, as well as sharing appropriate environmentally sound

technologies and know-how.


70. We propose to build on the Sustainable Energy for All initiative launched by the

Secretary-General, with the goals of providing universal access to a basic minimum level of

modern energy services for both consumption and production uses by 2030; improving

energy efficiency at all levels with a view to doubling the rate of improvement by 2030; and

doubling the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix by 2030 through promoting

the development and use of renewable energy sources and technologies in all countries. We

call for provision of adequate financial resources, of sufficient quality and delivered in a

timely manner, to developing countries for providing efficient and wider use of energy


71. We agree that each country should work for low-carbon development. We encourage

more widespread use of energy planning tools to provide a robust framework for donors and

partners to coordinate their development cooperation efforts.


72. We commit to promote an integrated and holistic approach to planning and building

sustainable cities through support to local authorities, efficient transportation and

communication networks, greener buildings and an efficient human settlements and service

delivery system, improved air and water quality, reduced waste, improved disaster

preparedness and response and increased climate resilience.

[Green jobs-social inclusion]

73. We recognize that the development of human capacity is essential to achieving broadbased economic growth, building strong, sustainable communities, promoting social wellbeing, and improving the environment. Workers must have the skills and protections

necessary to participate in and benefit from the transition to a green economy, which has

great potential to create decent jobs, particularly for the youth, and eradicate poverty.

74. We also recognize that significant job creation opportunities can be availed through

investments in public works for restoration and enhancement of natural capital, sustainable

land and water management practices, family farming, ecological farming, organic

production systems, sustainable forest management, rational use of biodiversity for economic

purposes, and new markets linked to renewable and unconventional energy sources. We

encourage business and industry to contribute to green job creation throughout their global

supply chains, including through support to small and medium enterprises.

75. We recognise and acknowledge that social well being and growth are also built on

robust and high quality infrastructure that creates jobs and wealth, adds long term value and 13

allows for broad inclusion. In this regard, we commit to enhanced infrastructure investment

which promotes sustainable development.

76. Understanding that building green economies will depend critically on creating green

jobs, we agree to take the following measures:

a) improve knowledge of green jobs trends and developments, and integrate

relevant data into national economic statistics;

b) address potential skills shortages through skills mapping and promoting of

green jobs training programs;

c) put in place an enabling environment for robust creation of decent jobs by

private enterprises investing in the green economy, including by small and

medium enterprises.

77. We stress the need to provide social protection to all members of society, including

those who are not employed in the formal economy. In this regard, we strongly encourage

national and local initiatives aimed at providing a social protection floor for all citizens.

[Oceans and Seas, SIDS]

78. We recognize that oceans are critical to sustaining Earth’s life support systems.

Careless exploitation of the oceans and their resources puts at risk the ability of oceans to

continue to provide food, other economic benefits and environmental services to humankind.

We stress the importance of the conservation, sustainable management and equitable sharing

of marine and ocean resources. We also recognize the significant economic, social and

environmental contribution of coral reefs to island and coastal States, and support

cooperation based on the Coral Triangle Initiative (CTI), and the International Coral Reef

Initiative (ICRI).

79. We endorse the Regular Process for the Global Marine Assessment as a credible,

robust process, and support the completion of its first global integrated assessment of the

state of the marine environment by 2014. We call for consideration of assessment findings in

formulation of national, regional and global oceans policy.

80. We note the establishment by the UN General Assembly of an Ad Hoc Open-ended

Informal Working Group to study issues relating to the conservation and sustainable use of

marine biological diversity beyond areas of national jurisdiction, and we agree to initiate, as

soon as possible, the negotiation of an implementing agreement to UNCLOS that would

address the conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity in areas beyond national


81. We call on countries to advance implementation of the Global Programme of Action

for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities, including further

capacity-building and mobilization of resources for investment in treatment of human wastes

and waste water and to develop a global action plan to combat marine litter and pollution.

82. We also propose to implement an international observing network for ocean

acidification and to work collectively to prevent further ocean acidification.

83. We note that despite agreement to restore global fish stocks to sustainable levels by

2015, many stocks continue to be depleted unsustainably. We call upon States to re-commit 14

to maintaining or restoring depleted fish stocks to sustainable levels and to further commit to

implementing science-based management plans to rebuild stocks by 2015.

84. We urge countries to combat illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing by

adopting and implementing effective tools, in accordance with international law. We note the

agreement on port state measures to prevent, deter and eliminate illegal, unreported and

unregulated fishing approved by FAO in 2009 and urge States that have not yet acceded to

the agreement to do so.

85. We reaffirm that Small Island Developing States (SIDS) remain a special case for

sustainable development in view of their unique and particular vulnerabilities. The

vulnerability of SIDS has worsened over the last two decades, primarily because of higher

exposure to external shocks, including increasing adverse impacts of climate change and

more frequent and intense natural disasters as well as the fuel, food, and financial crises,

combined with inadequate international support.

86. We call for increased efforts to assist SIDS in implementing the BPOA and MSI and

achieving sustainable development, including improvement and strengthening of the relevant

entities within the United Nations system that support SIDS' sustainable development. We

also call for the convening of the third international conference for the sustainable

development of Small Island Developing States in 2014.

[Natural disasters]

87. We reiterate the call for disaster risk reduction to continue to be addressed in the

context of sustainable development and placed within the post-2015 development agenda. We

call for increased coordination among national, regional and international levels for a robust

response to environmental emergencies and improved forecasting and early warning systems,

as well as closer coordination between emergency response, early recovery and development

efforts, including adoption of a post “Hyogo Framework” and its integration into

development policy.

[Climate change]

88. We reaffirm that climate change is one of the greatest challenges of our time, and

express our deep concern that developing countries are particularly vulnerable to and are

experiencing increased negative impacts from climate change, which is severely undermining

food security and efforts to eradicate poverty, and also threatens the territorial integrity,

viability and the very existence of small island developing states. We welcome the outcome

of COP17 at Durban and look forward to the urgent implementation of all the agreements


89. We encourage international initiatives and partnerships to address the

interrelationship among water, energy, food and climate change in order to achieve synergies

as well as to minimize conflicts among policy objectives, being particularly sensitive to

impacts on vulnerable populations.

[Forests and biodiversity]

90. We support policy frameworks and market instruments that effectively slow, halt and

reverse deforestation and forest degradation and promote the sustainable use and

management of forests, as well as their conservation and restoration. We call for the urgent

implementation of the “Non-Legally Binding Instrument on all Types of Forests (NLBI)”.  15

91. We welcome the Nagoya Protocol adopted at the tenth meeting of the Conference of

the Parties to the Convention on Biodiversity. We support mainstreaming of biodiversity and

ecosystem services in policies and decision-making processes at international, regional and

national levels, and encourage investments in natural capital through appropriate incentives

and policies, which support a sustainable and equitable use of biological diversity and


[Land degradation and desertification]

92. We recognize the economic and social significance of land, particularly its

contribution to growth, food security, and poverty eradication, and note that the intensity of

desertification of most of Africa’s arable land is a serious challenge to sustainable

development in the region. We call for enhanced support by the international community to

the implementation of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD).

93. We agree to support partnerships and initiatives for the safeguarding of soil resources

such as the Global Soil Partnership (GSP). We also encourage scientific studies and

initiatives aimed at raising wider awareness of the economic benefits of sustainable land

management policies that achieve healthy and productive land and soil.


94. We recognize that mountains are highly vulnerable to global changes such as climate

change, and are often home to communities including of indigenous peoples, who have

developed sustainable uses of their resources yet are often marginalized, sometimes with high

poverty rates, exposure to natural risks and food insecurity. We recognize the benefits

derived from mountains and their associated ecosystems. We also recognize the need to

explore global, regional, national, and local mechanisms to compensate and reward mountain

communities for the services they provide through ecosystem protection.

[Chemicals and waste]

95. We call for strengthening the Strategic Approach to International Chemicals

Management (SAICM), to step up efforts towards a more robust, coherent, effective and

efficient international regime for chemicals throughout their lifecycle. Sustainable and

adequate long-term funding will be important to assist developing countries with sound

chemical and waste management through an integrated approach.

96. We commend the increased coordination and cooperation among the Basel

Convention, the Rotterdam Convention and the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic

Pollutants, and call for public-private partnerships aiming to enhance capacity and technology

for environmentally sound waste management. We also note with concern the emerging

challenges of electronic waste and plastics in the marine environment, which should be

addressed inter alia through appropriate programmes and environmentally sound technologies

for material and energy recovery.

[Sustainable Consumption and Production]

97. We agree to establish a 10-Year Framework of Programmes on sustainable

consumption and production (SCP) as part of a global pact on sustainable consumption and

production, based on the text elaborated in the negotiations in the United Nations

Commission on Sustainable Development at its nineteenth session. 16


98. We recognize that access by all people to quality education is an essential condition

for sustainable development and social inclusion. We commit to strengthening the

contribution of our education systems to the pursuit of sustainable development, including

through enhanced teacher training and curricula development.

99. We call upon universities to become models of best practice and transformation by

setting an example of sustainability of facilities on their campuses and teaching sustainable

development as a module across all disciplines. In this way sustainable practices will become

embedded in learning and action.

100. We encourage international education exchange activities on education for sustainable

development, including the creation of fellowships and scholarships for international study in

disciplines and inter-disciplinary fields pertinent to the promotion of sustainable


101. We agree to promote education for sustainable development beyond the end of the

United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development in 2014, to educate a new

generation of students in the values, key disciplines and holistic, cross-disciplinary

approaches essential to promoting sustainable development.

[Gender equality]

102. We recognize that sustainable development is linked to and depends on women’s

economic contributions, both formal and informal. We note with concern that persistent

social and economic inequities continue to affect women and children, who make up the

majority of those living in poverty.

103. We call for removing barriers that have prevented women from being full participants

in the economy and unlocking their potential as drivers of sustainable development, and agree

to prioritize measures to promote gender equality in all spheres of our societies, including

education, employment, ownership of resources, access to justice, political representation,

institutional decision-making, care giving and household and community management.

104. We support the work of UN Women in achieving gender equality and the

empowerment of women in all aspects of life and bringing greater attention to the linkages

between gender equality and the promotion of sustainable development.

B. Accelerating and measuring progress

105. We recognize that goals, targets and milestones are essential for measuring and

accelerating progress towards sustainable development and agree to launch an inclusive

process to devise by 2015:

a) a set of global Sustainable Development Goals that reflect an integrated and

balanced treatment of the three dimensions of sustainable development, are

consistent with the principles of Agenda 21, and are universal and applicable

to all countries but allowing for differentiated approaches among countries;

b) a mechanism for periodic follow-up and reporting on progress made toward

their achievement.  17

106. We invite all stakeholders to join this process and request the UN Secretary-General

to coordinate this process.

107. We propose that the Sustainable Development Goals could include sustainable

consumption and production patterns as well as priority areas such as oceans; food security

and sustainable agriculture; sustainable energy for all; water access and efficiency;

sustainable cities; green jobs, decent work and social inclusion; and disaster risk reduction

and resilience.

108. We consider that the Sustainable Development Goals should complement and

strengthen the MDGs in the development agenda for the post-2015 period, with a view to

establishing a set of goals in 2015 which are part of the post-2015 UN Development Agenda.

109. We also propose that progress towards these Goals should be measured by appropriate

indicators and evaluated by specific targets to be achieved possibly by 2030, and request the

Secretary-General for proposals in this regard.

110. We resolve to strengthen the capacity of all countries to collect and analyze data and

information needed to support the monitoring of progress towards the Sustainable

Development Goals. We request the Secretary-General, with the support of interested donors,

the UN system, international organizations and other entities, to promote a global partnership

in this regard.

111. We also recognize the limitations of GDP as a measure of well-being. We agree to

further develop and strengthen indicators complementing GDP that integrate economic,

social and environmental dimensions in a balanced manner. We request the SecretaryGeneral to establish a process in consultation with the UN system and other relevant


C. Means of implementation


112. We call for the fulfilment of all official development assistance commitments,

including the commitments by many developed countries to achieve the target of 0.7 per cent

of gross national product for official development assistance to developing countries by 2015,

as well as a target of 0.15 to 0.20 per cent of gross national product for official development

assistance to least developed countries. To reach their agreed timetables, donor countries

should take all necessary and appropriate measures to raise the rate of aid disbursements to

meet their existing commitments. We urge those developed countries that have not yet done

so to make additional concrete efforts towards the target of 0.7 per cent of gross national

product for official development assistance to developing countries, including the specific

target of 0.15 to 0.20 per cent of gross national product for official development assistance to

least developed countries in line with the Istanbul Programme of Action for the Least

Developed Countries for the decade 2011-2020 in accordance with their commitments.

113. We call for the prioritization of sustainable development in the allocation of resources

in line with the priorities and needs of developing countries, and for substantial increases in

the provision of financing to developing countries for sustainable development.

114. We call for increased aid effectiveness, taking into account the Paris Declaration, the

Accra Action Agenda and the Busan Partnership for Effective Development Cooperation in 18

ensuring that aid is effective, accountable and responsive to the needs and priorities of

developing countries. There is a need for greater coherence at both the international and

national levels, including effective oversight of resources to ensure that developing countries

have steady and predictable access to adequate financing, including by the private sector, to

promote sustainable development.

115. We welcome the ongoing efforts to strengthen and support South-South cooperation

and triangular cooperation. We stress that South-South cooperation is not a substitute for, but

rather a complement to, North-South cooperation. We also stress that triangular cooperation

should be further utilized as an effective modality for development cooperation.

116. We reaffirm the key role of the private sector in promoting sustainable development

including through multi-stakeholder partnerships. Public policy should create a stable

investment climate and regulatory framework conducive to long-term investment and socially

and environmentally responsible behaviour by business and industry.

117. We call for the Global Environment Facility to be strengthened, with regularity in

funding flows and reform of governance processes towards more transparent and democratic

systems. We urge simplification of procedures and assistance to the least developed countries

and SIDS in accessing resources from the GEF.

[Science and Technology]

118. We reaffirm the commitments related to science and technology contained in the Rio

Declaration on Environment and Development, Agenda 21 and in the outcomes of other

major United Nations Summits and Conferences.

119. We recognize the importance of strengthening the scientific, technological and

innovation capacities of countries to promote sustainable development. In this regard, we

stress the need for effective mechanisms, enhanced means, appropriate enabling

environments, and the removal of obstacles to the scaling up of the development and transfer

of technology to developing countries.

120. We agree to strengthen international cooperation conducive to investment and

technology transfer, development and diffusion.

[Capacity Building]

121. We reaffirm the need for providing support to existing regional and sub-regional

structures and mechanisms in developing countries and encouraging their creation, where

needed, with the aim of facilitating cooperation and the exchange of information, including

capacity building, exchange of experiences and expertise to advance the implementation of

the decisions at regional and sub regional levels.

122. We call for the immediate implementation of the Bali Strategic Plan for Technology

Support and Capacity Building.

123. We urge the participation and representation of scientists from developing countries

in processes related to global environmental and sustainable development assessment to

strengthen scientific capacities in these countries. 19


124. We urge the members of the WTO to redouble efforts to achieve a universal, rulesbased, open, non-discriminatory and equitable multilateral trading system and for an early

balanced, ambitious and development-oriented outcome of the Doha Development Round of

multilateral trade negotiations. We call for the full realization of the commitments made in

the 2005 Hong-Kong Ministerial Declaration of the WTO in favour of the least developed


125. We reaffirm that there is an urgent need for the international economic and financial

institutions to work together to ensure that developing countries, particularly the least

developed countries, are able to benefit from the advantages of the multilateral trade system

and their integration into global markets.

126. We support the eventual phase out of market distorting and environmentally harmful

subsidies that impede the transition to sustainable development, including those on fossil

fuels, agriculture and fisheries, with safeguards to protect vulnerable groups.

127. We support the trade capacity building and facilitation activities of international and

regional organizations which would assist developing countries, particularly the least

developed countries, in identifying and seizing new export opportunities, including those

created by the transition towards a green economy.

[Registry/compendium of commitments]

128. We welcome the voluntary commitments made at Rio+20 and invite the SecretaryGeneral to compile them in a registry/compendium that will serve as an accountability framework.